There’s currently insufficient human data to provide clear conclusions about the effects of CBD on progesterone and estrogen levels. This is the most frequently asked question I’ve been hit with lately, and I think its a really juicy one because it highlights the potency that CBD can act within the body. A look into the potential effects of cannabis on women’s hormones and what it could mean for those who suffer from hormonal imbalances.
Does CBD Affect Progesterone and Estrogen?
Progesterone and estrogen are the primary female sex hormones. Both hormones play a critical role in regulating female reproductive systems and contribute to general wellbeing.
Emerging research suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) may modulate the expression of certain hormones, such as progesterone and estrogen. However, research exploring the effects of CBD on these hormones is still at a nascent stage, and findings are mixed.
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What Are Progesterone and Estrogen?
More than fifty hormones have been identified in the human body. Hormones are chemical messengers released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream, where they travel to receptor sites in the organs and tissues to trigger change. The master gland controls the function of most glands in the body, called the pituitary gland.
Men and women generally have the same hormones, although they occur in different quantities, are produced at various sites, and interact with organs and bodily systems differently.
Progesterone and estrogen are the most dominant hormones in women, while testosterone is the most prevalent hormone in men. However, men also produce progesterone and estrogen, albeit at lower levels. Progesterone and estrogen both play essential roles in men’s and women’s reproductive health.
Progesterone is a “precursor” or building block hormone that helps manufacture sex hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone. The ovaries secrete this essential hormone in women and the testes in men. In women, progesterone has the specific role of regulating menstruation and supporting female reproduction. In men, progesterone has the critical function of helping to produce testosterone and influences the production of sperm (spermiogenesis).
However, progesterone also contributes to some other vital physiological functions in both women and men, such as:
- Regulating blood sugar.
- Building bone mass.
- Regulating brain activity.
- Converting fat into energy.
- Regulating thyroid production.
- Sparking libido.
- Balancing mood.
- Helping support sleep.
There are three major forms of estrogen: estradiol, estrone, and estriol. Estradiol, the most predominant form of estrogen in men, influences erectile function, libido, and the production of sperm. In men, estrogens are primarily produced in the testes, adrenal glands, and the brain.
Estradiol is the most common form of estrogen in women during the reproductive years, contributing to the growth of the egg follicle in preparation for conception/menstruation, the thickness and health of the uterus, and the formation of breast tissue. Estrone becomes more prominent after menopause, while estriol is predominant during pregnancy. In women, estrogens are largely produced in the ovaries and adrenal glands.
In both men and women, estrogens can also help contribute to the following bodily processes:
- Building bone density.
- Facilitating physical changes during puberty.
- Maintenance of mood and emotional state.
- Healthy skin.
- Cognitive function.
- Muscle mass.
CBD and Progesterone and Estrogen: What the Science Says
At present, insights into the effects of CBD on progesterone and estrogen are still very much in a nascent phase. Most existing research explores the effects of whole-plant cannabis (THC, CBD, other minor cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other plant compounds) on hormones.
The interaction of these diverse compounds in cannabis with hormone production and expression is nuanced due to the entourage effect. It’s therefore difficult to conclude the effects of CBD from research that investigates the effects of whole-plant cannabis on progesterone and estrogen.
Nonetheless, it’s clear that cannabis can modulate our hormones through its effects on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and the cannabinoid receptors (which consist of the CB1 and CB2 receptors). The ECS plays a critical role in our immune system and contributes to the body’s homeostasis (balance and equilibrium). This critical bodily system also influences hormonal function.
Of the few studies that exist exploring the effects of CBD on estrogen.
A 1980 study found that moderate to high doses of CBD did not change the estrogen levels of female rhesus monkeys. However, a 2020 test-tube study found that CBD suppressed estrogen production by inhibiting the production of an enzyme called aromatase. Aromatase plays a vital role in the body’s production of estrogens. CBD was also found to deregulate decidualization, a process that plays a role in healthy pregnancies. The authors suggested that CBD could lead to infertility problems. However, large-scale clinical studies, including human participants, are needed before drawing any conclusion.
Findings on progesterone are also inconclusive. In a 2018 study, mice that received CBD for 34 consecutive days experienced no change in their circulating progesterone levels. In a 2005 study on rats, however, CBD inhibited the expression of progesterone in rat testes. The researchers suggested that the outcome may be caused by a metabolic interaction between the cannabinoid and the enzyme that converts progesterone into other hormones.
How to Use CBD to Balance Progesterone and Estrogen
Despite the ambiguous data concerning the effects of CBD on progesterone and estrogen, there is some research suggesting that CBD may counter hormone imbalance.
A 2022 study in an animal model of rat epilepsy showed that seizures are more frequent when estrogen levels are high, and progesterone levels are low – a period known as the proestrus-estrus transition. The researchers found that a single dose of CBD offered partial protection against the severity of seizures and inflammation that can occur due to high levels of estrogen. They also concluded that CBD could be used to support hormone balance when estrogen/progesterone levels are fluctuating.
In human populations, anecdotes abound about the hormone-balancing properties of CBD, even if clinical data is sometimes scarce. For example, CBD may yield benefits for women experiencing the fluctuations of menopause. Beyond CBD, there’s evidence that marijuana, in general, may help with menstrual cramps.
If you’re thinking about experimenting with CBD to balance estrogen and progesterone, it can be helpful to consult with a doctor experienced in cannabis medicine before beginning a new regime. For example, finding out if CBD may affect certain medications, such as birth control, is vital.
If you try CBD oil or other CBD products, check out our list of helpful dosing tips, and always remember to start low and slow.
The Bottom Line: Can CBD Help Balance Progesterone and Estrogen?
At this stage, there’s simply not enough robust data to suggest that CBD can support the hormonal balance of estrogen and progesterone.
The research has primarily been confined to test tube and animal studies or simply isn’t specific enough. For example, most of the available data explores the effects of the cannabis plant, THC, or marijuana use on hormonal imbalances, hormone levels, or the endocrine system in general, not on the effects of CBD on estrogen or progesterone specifically.
It’s likely, however, that the coming years will see more studies involving human participants, hopefully casting more light on how CBD influences the expression or production of estrogen and progesterone.
Frequently Asked Questions
Does CBD affect any female hormones?
There’s definitely evidence to suggest that CBD can affect female-dominant hormones. However, at this stage, it’s unclear what the effects are on progesterone and estrogen, as the research findings have been mixed. There is data that suggests CBD affects other hormones, such as cortisol, stress, thyroid, or growth hormones.
Does CBD help with menstrual cramps?
Some emerging evidence suggests CBD (and weed in general) may help ease menstrual cramps and influence the menstrual cycle in general. CBD may also help manage symptoms associated with conditions such as endometriosis and polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Does CBD help with menopause symptoms?
CBD may also help soothe symptoms associated with menopause by potentially alleviating disrupted sleep, promoting a sense of calm and relaxation to overcome mood swings and hot flashes, regulating weight gain, stabilizing blood pressure, easing joint pain, and regulating blood sugar levels, elevating sex drive and promoting bone density.
Does CBD Affect Hormones (and is it good or bad)?
This is the most frequently asked question I’ve been hit with lately, and I think its a really juicy one because it highlights the potency that CBD can act within the body.
Q. Does CBD affect hormones?
Hormones are special types of chemical messenger that enable one part of the body to ‘talk’ to another, so the body is constantly operating in synchronous harmony.
Collectively, the hormones and the glands they are released from are known as the endocrine system.
Glands are found throughout the body. Certain glands release specific hormones into the bloodstream so that they can travel to other organs and glands to control their function. This forms a communication network which is giving and receiving constant feedback to maintain optimal bodily function.
Some of the major roles of hormones are:
- Sex drive
Levels of hormones naturally fluctuate depending on whether it’s day or night, and what stage of life a person has reached, eg adolescence, pregnancy or menopause.
Hormones can also become imbalanced throughout any stage of life. These imbalances can be part of the driving force behind chronic illnesses. One of the major challenges we face today is the impact of environmental toxicity on our hormones – plastics, industrial chemicals and pesticides all mess with the endocrine system.
Aside from reducing our exposure to toxicity, we can look for ways to support healthy hormones through the foods, herbs and exercise we engage with.
- Thyroid Hormones
- Growth Hormone
How does CBD affect hormones?
There are three main ways that CBD can change how hormones work in the body.
Cannabinoid receptors are found on major glands throughout the body. When these receptors are activated by our bodies endocannabinoids, this can alter the secretion of hormones, and change their impact on target organs.
Since CBD can also (indirectly) interact with cannabinoid receptors, it has the power to alter the synthesis and secretion of hormones as well.
Most changes in hormone synthesis and secretion start in the hypothalamus, when cannabinoid receptor 1 is activated. This starts a series of hormonal messages that trickle down to other glands, which then secrete their own hormones in response.
Cannabinoid receptor 1 is also found on most other glands and organs, so can control hormonal balance directly as well.
Cannabinoids like CBD can influence the ‘volume’ of message received at a target organ from a hormone. The sensitivity of a cell receptor for a certain hormone can either be increased or decreased by cannabinoids – increasing or decreasing the volume / strength of the message.
Hormones need to be cleared and disposed of after they have done their jobs, so continual balance can be maintained in the body. Cannabinoids like CBD can alter the speed of enzymes that break hormones down.
Although there’s no studies looking directly at CBD on thyroid hormones, there have been some which have looked at the effect of endocannabinoids on them.
Since CBD affects endocannabinoids, we can only speculate as to the effects.
Thyroid hormones TSH, T4 and T3 are all designed to rev up cellular metabolism, helping us mobilise energy to use it.
Endocannabinoids on the other hand encourage the sparing and storage of energy, in part by reducing thyroid hormones (1) .
Blocking endocannabinoids increases TSH, T4 and T3, which may help raise thyroid function (2) .
The effect of CBD could theoretically go both ways, since it can both dampen and stimulate endocannabinoids. Whether CBD may increase or decrease thyroid hormones might depend on someone being hypothyroid, hyperthyroid or having a normal thyroid.
Anandamide was found to suppress TSH only in hypothyroid and normal thyroid conditions (high TSH), and not in hyperthyroid conditions (low TSH) (2) .
This is potential evidence of an adaptogenic effect of (endo)cannabinoids, helping to balance individuals to their own needs. CBD may help endocannabinoids support individual balance.
Testosterone is an important hormone involved mainly in reproduction and sex drive, but also has other roles in regulating mood and energy.
Its mainly synthesised in the testes and ovaries, and is made in repose to hormonal signals from the hypothalamus (LH and FSH).
CBD has been shown to effect LH and FSH levels in monkeys, albeit at doses much higher than we would realistically use. After 90 days, LH and FSH were increased, but no changes were seen in testosterone, except a decrease at the highest dose (3) .
In rats and mice, higher doses (higher than most of us would take) reduced testosterone after 10 – 34 days (4) .
CBD has been suggested to reduce testosterone production by inhibiting the enzyme 17α‐hydroxylase, which makes Testosterone in leydig cells of the testes (4) .
However, CBD also inhibits specific cytochrome p450 enzymes in the liver which break testosterone down (4) .
So theoretically, reducing the breakdown of testosterone may offset reductions in synthesis. But thats just speculation at this point. Also, these studies show a decrease in testosterone at high doses used mid term.
We need to see trials in humans before we can say anything concrete. But for men who want to take a cautious approach:
- Use moderate doses (5 – 100mg/day)
- Cyclical use: take a break every few months to washout accumulated CBD – sweating through sauna and exercise.
- Exercise regularly to promote natural testosterone production whilst using CBD.
Estradiol E 2 ( Estrogen)
Estrogen levels are important because they influence sexual development, fertility, and susceptibility to female diseases such as breast cancer.
Estrogen is made in the ovaries, in repose to hormones LH and FSH released from the pituitary gland. Its levels in the body are also controlled by enzymes that make it and break it down.
Studies using CBD in cells found that it suppresses estrogen production directly, by inhibiting an enzyme that makes it from testosterone, called aromatase (5) .
Aromatase inhibitors are used to reduce estrogen levels in cases of breast cancer and post menopause (6) .
CBD also encourages the breakdown of estrogen by speeding up cytochrome p450 enzymes that break it down (7) .
Theoretically, this points to an anti-estrogenic effect of CBD, lowering levels of estrogen. But this has not been shown in animal or human research so far.
Moderate to high doses of CBD were not associated with changes in LH, FSH and estrogen after 90 days in female monkeys (3) .
More research is needed before any conclusions can be made on how CBD affects estrogen.
Growth hormone (GH), as the name suggests, signals for the reproduction and regeneration of cells, stimulating growth and development in the body.
A few benefits of increased growth hormone output are:
- Strong bones
- Increased muscle mass
- More energy
- Enhanced ability to burn fat
- Improved exercise capacity
A single dose of CBD had no effect on Growth Hormone levels in 11 healthy volunteers (8) .
However other cannabinoids like THC, especially when used long term have been shown to reduce GH. THC reduced GH secretion from the pituitary gland via cannabinoid receptor 1 (9) , and reduced circulating GH levels in adults (10) .
Since CBD also interacts with CB1, long term use could affect GH levels. We need more studies to assess whether there’s a positive or negative effect of CBD on GH levels.
Insulin is a major hormone involved in the use and storage of energy. It has a great impact on body weight and energy levels, via regulating metabolism.
We need insulin to tell our cells when to take in sugar from the bloodstream. Healthy insulin levels mean we use sugar effectively in our muscles and liver, and don’t store too much in fat tissue.
Too much insulin is a driving force of weight gain and diabetes, and its often raised in repose to high sugar consumption.
In diabetic rats, CBD has been shown to reduce excessively high levels of insulin, whilst maintaining blood sugar levels (11) . This means CBD may help sensitise muscles and liver cells to take up sugar more efficiently, helping to maintain stable blood sugar.
CBD also reduces body weight gain in rats (12) . By reducing insulin, CBD may discourage fat cells from storing excessive sugar, which could reduce weight gain.
Unfortunately the only study in humans looking at insulin levels with CBD used a low dose, which did not affect insulin levels in the diabetic patients. However, CBD did increase the levels of another hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) which controls the release on insulin, hinting at a possible effect on insulin with higher doses (13) .
Cortisol’s major role is as a stress hormone, and tells the rest of body that a stressful event is happening. Its produced in the adrenals, in response to sensory inputs to the hypothalamus from our experience of the world around us.
Short term spikes in cortisol are beneficial, as they allow us to be aware of potentially dangerous things in our environment that threaten our survival.
Unfortunately staying on top of bills, work and relationships can also be perceived as a threat to survival, and lead to chronic cortisol output and unresolved stress.
CBD is quite incredible at resolving stress, though. It essentially acts as a breaking system on the stress response, by acting (indirectly) through cannabinoid receptors in the hypothalamus. Effectively, CBD tells the adrenals to chill out on cortisol production.
Human and studies have shown CBD can modulate cortisol output (7) , (14) , (15) , and its one of the major reasons why so many people may find it soothing.
CBD and HRT
We’re still in the early days of research with CBD in general, even less so when it comes to its impact on hormonal regulation. Currently we are reduced to speculating based on the mechanisms of action from animal studies, without much idea of real world effects in humans.
CBD may be able to help ‘normalise’ bodily systems to a certain extent, including some degree of hormonal balance. But this may depend on the severity of the underlying imbalance in the first place, which in more severe cases CBD is unlikely to have a meaningful effect.
The reason for this relates to the fact that CBD does not have a powerful stimulatory effect on hormonal production, but more so in maintaining the balance between various different hormones. In light of this, CBD would not be a viable alternative to HRT, but may be complimentary to helping regulate the balance of hormones that are given in a supplementary way.
Its unclear what the benefits of HRT and CBD would be combined, and may be different between individuals. Its often the case that combining different therapies has a complementary and synergistic effect. If you are interested, its worth discussing this first with your Doctor or Endocrinologist.
Although there are (initial) changes in hormone levels with CBD, other studies suggest a tolerance can be developed to cannabinoids (16). Initial hormone changes may correct overtime, or are compensated for by other mechanisms (ie hormone receptor sensitivity). So basically, its too early to say with much certainty just how CBD affects hormones long term and what that translates to health wise.
Cannabis for Women: Does CBD Increase Estrogen?
May 9-15 is Women’s Health Week and the perfect time to discuss how cannabis can affect our bodies as women. While many focus on cannabinoids’ potential to help with pain, stomach distress, or a poor mood, some cannabinoids may assist with hormonal balance. We know that cannabis can impact our hormones, so does CBD increase estrogen levels?
Why is Estrogen Important to Women’s Health?
Estrogen is essential for a woman’s overall health and wellbeing. It helps regulate many body processes:
Regulate the menstrual cycle
Promote bone health
Protect against heart disease
Maintain healthy skin and hair
As we age, our estrogen levels naturally decline, which can cause menopause and many associated symptoms like hot flashes, night sweats, weight gain, and mood swings.
Does CBD Increase Estrogen Levels?
That’s a complex question. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) may play a role in hormonal balance, but research is still in its early stages. A study on male rats found CBD might decrease testosterone levels, but we need more research to say for sure how it affects female humans.
Studies show that the ECS plays a critical role in female reproductive health. Research demonstrates endogenous cannabinoids inhibit ovulation in female rats. The ECS may also be involved in menstrual cycle regulation by interacting with the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries.
This isn’t enough information to make a definitive answer.
We have to leave CBD and estrogen as an open topic until we have more results.
CBD and ECS Balance
While we don’t know as much as we should about CBD, estrogen, and women’s health, there’s much more research and information from the scientific community about CBD and its ability to support endocannabinoid function. The ECS is vital to our health, and while there are many ways to encourage a healthy ECS, cannabinoids like CBD can help keep it in balance.
The benefits of CBD also help maintain symmetry within the body. Many people use CBD for a range of wellness needs, including:
CBD for Anxiousness
Anxiety and stress aren’t beneficial for your hormone levels. They can increase the production of cortisol, which can disrupt your menstrual cycle and make menopause more uncomfortable.
CBD may assist with relaxation and help to keep anxiety at bay. By keeping stress levels low, you may also be able to encourage a more regular menstrual cycle.
CBD for Sleep
Sleep is the best way to support your body and encourage hormonal balance. Our bodies produce growth hormones during sleep, essential for tissue repair, bone health, and regulating metabolism.
CBD may help you get a better night’s sleep by interacting with the ECS to promote relaxation. A good night’s rest can also improve your stress levels and help control weight.
CBD for Inflammation
Our research shows chronic inflammation may increase the risk of endometriosis, PCOS, and ovarian cancer. It can also worsen menopause symptoms, like hot flashes and night sweats. CBD’s anti-inflammatory effects may help to ease pain and reduce swelling.
CBD for Skin Health
The skin is our largest organ, and it’s also full of cannabinoid receptors. When your hormones are out of balance, your skin may suffer. CBD’s potential to encourage cell regeneration and reduce inflammation may help improve the look and feel of your skin.
CBD may help to improve skin health by reducing inflammation and keeping the ECS in balance. A healthy ECS can promote cell growth and keep your skin looking its best.
CBD For Hair Health
A healthy scalp is vital for hair growth. CBD is a powerful antioxidant that can help to protect the hair from damage. It may also help to reduce inflammation and keep the scalp healthy.
CBD may help to improve hair health by reducing inflammation, keeping the scalp healthy, and encouraging cell growth.
CBD for Heart Health
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for women in the United States. A healthy ECS can reduce the risk of heart disease and support heart health. CBD may help protect the heart by reducing inflammation and keeping the ECS in balance.
CBD for Bone Health
Osteoporosis is a common problem for post-menopausal women. CBD may help to reduce inflammation and encourage bone growth. A healthy ECS may support bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Overall, strong bones are essential for a healthy body.
CBD to Manage Weight
CBD may help manage weight by reducing inflammation and keeping the ECS in balance. A healthy ECS can encourage cell growth and regulate metabolism. As the body loses estrogen, weight management becomes more difficult. CBD may help offset this weight gain by supporting a healthy ECS.
CBD for Gut Health
A healthy gut is vital for a healthy ECS. A healthy gut can reduce the risk of gastrointestinal problems and support gut health. CBD may help to reduce inflammation and keep the gut healthy.
CBD for Overall Wellness
CBD may help support overall wellness by reducing inflammation and keeping the endocannabinoid system in balance. A healthy endocannabinoid system can encourage cell growth and support the body’s natural ability to heal.
CBD may encourage hormonal balance through a healthy body by supporting the ECS.
Final Thoughts on Cannabis, CBD, and Estrogen
We need more research to say for sure how cannabis affects female hormones. We know that the endocannabinoid system regulates the menstrual cycle and ovulation. CBD may also help to reduce anxiety and inflammation and promote skin health.
If you’re considering using CBD, or any cannabis product, talk to your doctor first. They can help you understand how it might interact with any medications you’re taking and offer guidance on the best dosage for your needs.
Pantry Food Co. edibles are an excellent way to add CBD to your daily routine. Our cannabis bites are available in various flavors and make a wonderful mid-day or evening treat as part of your wellness plan. Check out our list of CBD edibles today!