Can CBG (cannabigerol) in combination with CBD (cannabidiol) help slow the effects of Degenerative Myelopathy in dogs? Has your dog been diagnosed with Degenerative Myelopathy? There are many things that you can do to help your dog feel much better. Degenerative myelopathy in dogs is one of those, particularly dreaded diseases. We all know them, the ones that make you say, "oh, no, I hope it's not that". Having to watch your dog's health rapidly decline and be unable to live a normal life is heartbreaking and it can lead to more health concerns. Thankfully, it's n
Can CBG slow the effects of Degenerative Myelopathy?
Recent research suggests that CBG (cannabigerol) in combination with CBD (cannabidiol) is neuroprotective. Can it help slow the effects of Degenerative Myelopathy in dogs?
The diagnosis of DM is one we vets hate to hear and hate to give! While Degenerative Myelopathy, analogous to ALS in humans, is not usually a painful condition, it is relentless. DM takes away a dog’s ability to stand and support his weight, starting with the hind legs, and moving cranially. We can provide supportive care, like protective booties for scuffed dorsal paws, harnesses to lift the hind end, and eventually carts. But in the end, loss of mobility means loss of quality of life for both the dog and the caregiver.
As a holistic vet, I have followed Dr. Steve Marsden’s recommendations of treating Degenerative Myelopathy as a spinal inflammatory disorder, which gains a foothold via spinal injury, and spreads from there. A year ago, I began adding a novel CBG/CBD combination tincture to the anti-inflammatory protocol. Recent research on “minor” cannabinoids (other than CBD and THC) suggests that CBG (cannabigerol) in combination with CBD (cannabidiol) combats neuroinflammation, imparting neuro-protective effects. 1,2,3 The promising results give hope that this may be another tool to help slow the neurodegenerative devastation of degenerative myelopathy.
Zac is an 8-year-old boxer with a history of musculoskeletal issues: spinal spondylosis, hip pain and a possible ACL tear. He began treatment for back pain at a holistic rehabilitation clinic in the fall of 2020, which included laser and underwater treadmill therapy weekly. Acupuncture was not performed because he seemed to object to it. He did not improve as expected, so the veterinarian tested for Degenerative Myelopathy, which was positive. He continued with weekly laser and UWT therapy, gabapentin and supportive supplements. In the summer of 2021, his mobility rapidly deteriorated, until he could no longer support his hind end or generate gait. His owner came to me to investigate further options.
On PE, Zac was strong and well-muscled in the forelimbs and back, but had significant muscle atrophy behind. He could not rise to a standing position or support himself, but when his hind end was supported with a harness, his back legs made some gaiting motions, indicating that some motor function was still present. He had some discomfort at the thoracolumbar junction, consistent with his concurrent diagnosis of spondylosis. His tongue was bright pink, and his pulse was somewhat wiry.
My treatment plan was intensive anti-inflammatory therapy along with intensive physical interventions. Once he lost ambulatory function, Zac was not deriving benefit from the UWT— he was not using his hind limb muscles during sessions because he was being completely supported and his limbs advanced manually. After the initial consultation, he was sent home on the following protocol:
- CBD/CBG formula: 1/4 ml 4:3 CBG Ultra, BID (30/22.5 mg CBD/CBG)
- Xiao Chai Hu Tang, TID
- Curcumin & Boswellia (60 mg/120 mg micellar solubilized SID)
- Vitamin B12: 500 mcg SQ once a week
- Milk thistle and other antioxidant therapies
Zac’s physical interventions became more directed and intensified. His owner, a medical professional, was trained to needle Bladder 19 and GB 34 twice weekly. She acquired an Assisi Loop (PEMF therapy) and used it twice daily. A highly trained canine physiotherapist (a licensed PT with animal certification) worked with Zac weekly, doing physical therapy exercises and nerve pathway focused laser treatments. The owner performed the exercises at home several times daily.
From the owner:
2 weeks: “Zac is doing a little better. Less pain and seems to have more purposeful movement/steps with his back legs.”
4 weeks: “The supplements seem to be helping and Zac has started physical therapy. This is much better than the UWT. I no longer have to give gabapentin daily because the curcumin and boswellia seems to control his pain.”
From the animal PT, 4 weeks after start of treatment:
I have started basics with Zac: reaching and extending his spine in sternal lying, crawling (which he does now), changing positions side to side, lateral trunk flexion, lots of manual work, and proprioceptive work to all four limbs which are quite sore with significant triggers in the scapulothoracic joints and triceps from compensations. Last week we started work in a seated position with his hind end elevated 4 inches making it easier for him to maintain posture. I’m lasering his fore limbs, hind limbs (sciatic and femoral nerve pathways), and down bilateral paraspinals in cervical through lumbosacral regions.
We have been working on getting him to shift himself from one side to the other. He also has been pushing himself up to a seated position at rehab and some more at home, something his owner says he has not done in over a month. Last week his owner also stated that he was doing so well, noting that he has been so playful and happy overall.
As holistic vets, we often perform simultaneous, synergistic treatments, so it is difficult to say which intervention can be credited for success. In this case, the regime of CBD/CBG and Xiao Chai Hu Tang, with strong anti-inflammatory support (curcumin and boswellia), resulted in steady improvements in his mobility and attitude even before the physical therapy began. Since the skilled PT began, he has regained some of his strength and proprioception in his trunk, which makes daily management easier for his owner.
Can degenerative conditions like DM be reversed? Perhaps not, but the nervous system has many ways to “work around” damage, and with some neuro-protection and anti-inflammation on board to slow down the degenerative process, perhaps manual therapy can help this dog to be more functional.
It is worth noting that we, as veterinarians, have a lot to learn from our Physical Therapist colleagues, who train for 5–7 years to learn their profession. While veterinary medicine has been at the forefront in adopting many novel joint (HA, PRP) treatments, as well as modalities (therapeutic ultrasound, laser, underwater treadmills), some vet practices embarking on “rehab” services are substituting the use of these high-tech modalities for the manual skills (both diagnostic and therapeutic) that a trained physiotherapist can bring to the care. Ideally, “vet rehab” should be performed with the same high standards for manual therapy that we hold for human practice, with patients benefitting from both high tech modalities and highly skilled manual interventions.
Want to hear more about Zac’s journey? Dr. Gellman and PT Whitney Mitchell
will be giving a webinar with videos of Zac’s manual therapy for the NYCAVMA
clinical series on January 31, at 7 PM. Contact Dr. Cynthia Lankenau to register:
1 Aguareles J, Paraiso-Luna J, Palomares B et al. Oral Administration of the Cannabigerol Derivative VCE-003.2 Promotes Subventricular Zone Neurogenesis and Protects Against Mutant Huntington-Induced Neurodegeneration. Translational Neurodegenaration (2019) 8:9.
2 di Giacomo V, Chiavaroli A, Recinella L ,et al. Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat CTX-TNA2 Astrocytes and Isolated Cortexes. Int J Mol Sci. (2020) 21(10):3575.
3 Echeverry C, Prunell G, Narbondo C et al. A Comparative In Vitro Study of the Neuroprotective Effect Induced by Cannabidiol, Cannabigerol and their Respective Acid Forms: Relevance of the 5-HT 1A Receptors. Neurotox Res. (2020) Sep 4 Online ahead of print.
CBD Oil for Canine Degenerative Myelopathy
Has your dog been diagnosed with Degenerative Myelopathy? There are many things that you can do to help your dog feel much better. Most vets may prescribe your dog medications to help them feel better, but you can also use CBD oil to help your dog who has Degenerative Myelopathy.
What is CBD Oil?
CBD is cannabidiol and is found in the hemp plants. Unlike what some people may think CBD does not contain any THC. THC is the chemical that is found in marijuana that is responsible for the euphoric state. CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system in the brain to produce a variety of effects on the body. It is used to treat a variety of issues, both mental and physical.
When looking for CBD products for your dog, you will want to find one that has CO2 extraction, as this produces the best results and the highest quality oils. Since there are many different ways that CBD can be harvested, the purer the product usually means, the higher the price point. Once CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system in the body, it produces a variety of effects, including:
- Reduced joint inflammation
- Reduced anxiety and depression
- Decreases Stress
- Higher appetite
- Reduces itching from allergic reactions
- Helps decrease seizure activity
- Thought to possibly treat cancer
CBD can be administered to your dog in many different ways. You can buy oils that can be put right in your dog’s mouth or on their food. You can even find tasty treats that your dog will love.
The Natural Doggie CBD-Infused Bacon Flavor Soft Chews use only the best ingredients nature has to offer. The perfect treat to promote calmness, reduce inflammation and pain and stimulate appetite in your pet. This is a perfect supplement to add to your dog’s diet. This Colorado-grown, hemp-derived oil is legal in all 50 states and contains no THC. The non-GMO oil in every treat is derived from the finest non-GMO hemp the world has to offer. Your dog will love these bacon-flavored dog chews and you will see a major difference in your animal and if you don’t, your satisfaction is guaranteed.
What is degenerative myelopathy in dogs?
Degenerative myelopathy is a disease that affects the spinal cord. This disease causes a slowly progressive hind end weakness and eventually paralysis. This is very common to Lou Gehrig’s disease seen in people. The symptoms that are seen are due to the degeneration of the white matter of the spinal cord.
The exact cause of degenerative myelopathy is unknown. When your dog first presents with signs, they will resemble arthritis or hip dysplasia. This makes the diagnosis of this disease a challenge.
As this disease progresses, you will start to see weakness and ataxia in the back end. There are also diseases that you must also consider for a dog with suspect degenerative myelopathies such as back injury, a tumor of the spinal cord, fibrocartilaginous embolism, myasthenia gravis, and disco-spondylitis.
What are the clinical signs of degenerative myelopathy in dogs?
The early clinical signs of degenerative myelopathy include:
- Your dog will “knuckle” on their back legs. This is when your dog will turn their paw under so that they walk on the tops of their feet. This is most commonly seen when your dog is turning.
- Your dog’s back end will sway from side to side when they are standing still.
- Your dog falls over very easily especially when you gently push them from the side
- Your dog’s back feet scrape the ground when they walk. You may also notice sores or hair loss of the tops of their feet due to them continually walking this way.
- Your dog will have a hard time getting up from the laying down position.
As this condition progresses, the spinal cord will deteriorate, and these symptoms will become worse. This will eventually lead to paralysis of the back end.
Unfortunately, there is no really good treatment for this disease. Most vets will manage pain and inflammation, as well as any other issues that your dog may be having. Most of the time, the damage that has been done to the spinal cord is irreversible and usually life-threatening.
Who is most commonly affected?
This disease is most commonly seen in older dogs between 8 to 14 years. There is a genetic mutation SOD-1 that has been identified in almost all dogs who have degenerative myelopathy. Common breeds that are predisposed to this disease are:
- German Shepherds
- Siberian Huskies
- Bernese Mountain Dog
- Chesapeake Bay Retrievers
- Golden Retrievers
- Kerry Blue Terriers
- Miniature and Standard Poodles
- Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers
- Pembroke Welsh Corgis
- Rhodesian Ridgebacks
- Wirehaired Fox Terriers
This disease can commonly be passed on genetically from parent to offspring. It is always best to make sure any breeding pair does not have this gene to prevent further spread of this disease.
Can CBD Oil Help?
CBD oil can be very helpful if your dog has been diagnosed with degenerative myelopathy. This can act as a pain reliever and treat symptoms of degenerative myelopathy, including depression and inflammation. CBD interacts with the nervous system and is thought to help with neurodegenerative diseases such as degenerative myelopathy. The antioxidants of cannabinoids suggest a therapeutic use as a neuroprotective agent, potentially preventing the disease. They shield brain cells from toxicity along with aiding in the prevention of degenerative myelopathy.
If your dog has been diagnosed with degenerative myelopathy, there are many things that you can do to help decrease your dog’s pain and inflammation. While there are traditional medications that your vet can prescribe, there are also many great supplements that you can use. CBD is great at helping decrease the pain and inflammation as well as help with many other issues. When looking for treatment for this disease, consider using CBD products.
Degenerative Myelopathy in Dogs and How CBD Helps
Degenerative myelopathy in dogs is one of those, particularly dreaded diseases. We all know them, the ones that make you say, “oh, no, I hope it’s not that”. Having to watch your dog’s health rapidly decline and be unable to live a normal life is heartbreaking and it can lead to more health concerns.
Thankfully, it’s not all bad. There are doggy wheelchairs that can help your dog maintain a more mobile lifestyle and enjoy themselves, and there are natural treatments, like CBD oil, that can greatly improve your dog’s quality of life. Your dog can live longer and better with degenerative myelopathy than you are imagining.
What is Degenerative Myelopathy in Dogs?
Degenerative myelopathy, or DM, is a debilitating disease impacting the spinal cord or nerves that vets commonly compare to ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s Disease, in people.
A good first place to understand what you’re dealing with if your dog is diagnosed with DM is to understand what the name means. Degenerative refers to the fact that the disease causes one’s spinal cord to decline or deteriorate, while myelopathy states that it is a disease of the spinal cord.
Degenerative myelopathy is a disease actually of the white matter of the spinal cord, which is very bad, because it is the part of the spinal cord that transmits the signals the dog’s brain sends to the various parts of its body telling them to move. As you might guess, that means it directly impacts the dog’s ability to control their body, get around, and live any kind of normal life. Eventually, it will cause paraplegia, or paralysis of the hind legs, and potentially complete immobility.
From onset to paraplegia, the length of the disease’s progression can take anywhere from six months to three years. Unfortunately, it’s usually on the shorter side of that.
How to Know Your Dog Has Degenerative Myelopathy
Symptoms of Canine Degenerative Myelopathy Stages
Early Stage Symptoms:
- tremors in their hind legs
- hind leg weakness
- difficult moving their hind legs
- appearing uneasy or unsure when walking
- lack of coordination in their hind legs
- knuckling their toes when walking
- dragging their feet, which may be accompanied by worn down nails
- difficulty rising
The symptoms may be present in only one leg in the beginning and may only be noticeable when the dog performs certain activities like squatting to go to the bathroom or jumping.
DM in dogs is easily mistaken at this point for arthritis, hip dysplasia, and other diseases that are not quite as scary. Do not let this delay your visit to the vet!
If you can catch degenerative myelopathy quickly enough, you can begin treatments that can greatly improve the dog’s outcome. It, unfortunately, cannot be cured, but you can have an important impact on their quality of life and efforts work better when begun sooner.
Intermediate Stage Symptoms:
- initial symptoms will increase and worsen
- damaged toes from dragging the feet
- begin finding it difficult to rise to stand or lower to lay down
- urinary and fecal incontinence
- inability to hold their weight on their hind legs
- muscle loss
- cannot walk without support
Advanced Stage Symptoms
- paraplegia, paralysis of the hind legs
- muscle weakness in all four limbs
- difficulty breathing if the disease makes it to the brain stem
- displaying pain
- complete immobility
- systemic infections
Pressure sores may begin at any stage if the dog becomes inactive enough. The likelihood of this will, of course, grow as the condition worsens. When paralysis sets in, it will be important to take proactive measures to ensure pressure sores do not develop.
Their hygiene may also decline at different stages depending on the dog’s symptoms
and mood. You should do what is in your power to better their mood and mobility and assist them with their hygiene.
Causes of Degenerative Myelopathy in Dogs
There is still a lot that is not understood about degenerative myelopathy.
One of the primary beliefs is that DM is an immune disease where the dog’s immune system thinks its nervous system is a harmful element and attacks it. This comes from an inherited genetic mutation. It is possible to test for the gene, but it is not very helpful because all dogs that have the gene do not get degenerative myelopathy.
Vitamin deficiencies, toxins, and oxidative stress are also likely causes of degenerative myelopathy. You could discuss this potential with your vet and see if it impacts treatment and outcome.
Many dog breeds have an increased risk of developing DM:
- American Eskimo Dogs
- Bernese Mountain Dogs
- Cardigan Welsh Corgis
- Chesapeake Bay Retrievers
- German Shepherds
- Great Pyrenees
- Irish Setters
- Kerry Blue Terriers
- Pembroke Welsh Corgis
- Rhodesian Ridgebacks
- Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers
- Standard Poodles
- WireFox Terriers
Any dog can develop degenerative myelopathy, but they are much more likely to
develop it as seniors. Large dogs often get it after 8 years and smaller dogs often get it after 11. It is possible for dogs as young as 4 to develop it.
Diagnosing Degenerative Myelopathy in Dogs
DM is one of those diseases where the diagnosis comes from excluding things it isn’t. There is no test to prove DM directly that can be performed until after the dog has passed.
The vet will want to discuss the dog’s symptoms and lifestyle with you and to examine the dog for signs while in their office.
To discover what the disease isn’t, they may run several tests:
- thyroid tests
- biopsy of spinal cord fluid
A DNA test before the onset of degenerative myelopathy can tell you if your dog has a greater risk of developing it. There is no guarantee, just higher risk. You can use this knowledge to promote the dog’s health to reduce their chances, improve their diet,
Treatment Options for Degenerative Myelopathy in Dogs
Since there is no cure for degenerative myelopathy, treatment consists of maintaining the quality of life. This is actually more hopeful than you probably think.
Do be aware though that treatment for degenerative myelopathy requires extensive nursing. Your ability to be an active part of the dog’s health will dramatically impact the length and quality of their life with DM.
First, give your dog as much exercise as you can for as long as you can, without getting so carried away you exhaust the poor thing.
Exercise can be maintained for quite a long time with both harnesses, allowing the dog to still walk with your assistance, and doggy wheelchairs. As long as the dog’s front legs still work, they can be quite mobile and enjoy the physical and mental benefits of exercise with a doggy wheelchair. You’ve probably seen videos online of paralyzed animals in wheelchairs getting around almost as well as they always did. It’s amazing.
Even if the dog does become unable to use all of its limbs, there are wheelchairs designed for dogs that support all of their legs.
Aquatic exercise is also quite helpful for dogs to get exercise without having to support their weight, extending their ability to get exercise and maintain muscle mass for a much longer period of time.
As soon as your dog starts having difficulty getting around, enough that they act hesitant about exercise or seem too unsteady to do it safely, you should get them a degenerative myelopathy harness.
People make booties to protect dogs’ feet against damage from being dragged.
That being said, they are often overused and can cause additional problems for the dog.
- leave the booties on all the time
- use them for their walks
- walk the dog on grass as much as possible
- use booties if their feet drag in the wheelchair
There are two problems with booties, one is that using them for all of their walking makes it hard for them to walk correctly, which interferes with the dog’s ability to maintain the use of their legs, and the other is it can make them fall and hurt themselves. They certainly don’t need an injury on top of their disease.
The booties can protect the dog’s feet in the wheelchair without causing a problem because they don’t have to bear down or balance and aren’t at risk of falling.
The dog’s diet can play a big part in their prognosis.
Their immune system, inflammation, and vitamin deficiencies can be addressed with diet. It might be best for you to discuss the particular diet with your dog’s vet to personalize it to their needs, their weight, their exercise level, and their tastes.
It’s easy with homemade diets and foods to not give your dog the proper nutrition and cause other health problems.
As they start spending more time laying down, it is important to ensure they have proper bedding and that the bedding is maintained properly.
They will need well-padded, supportive bedding, think as strong as a human bed for larger dogs. If you have the room for it, give them a human mattress or air mattress. Sleeping bags and enough thick blankets may be enough for small dogs.
You can purchase special pet beds.
Regardless of what you pick, make sure to change the bed coverings or top layers frequently.
As the dog moves less, they’re also likely to gain weight or become obese. This can make moving more difficult for them and generally cause a decline in health.
Prevent weight gain through diet management, such as with fewer treats or no treats, and low fat, healthy dog food. Table scraps will often be a bad idea as this is a common cause of dog weight gain. If you don’t want to cut them out altogether, try lessening them drastically and/or being picky about whether they’re eating high calorie or high-fat human foods. Be as aggressive with the diet as needed to go with their exercise level and weight.
When a dog starts laying down more than usual or all the time, they develop bedsores. You can prevent this by keeping them mobile as long as possible and turning them on a regular basis when they aren’t mobile.
When dogs become immobile, they can have accidents and you must be able to keep them clean to prevent urine scalding, ulcerations, and lesions.
Dogs with plentiful or long hair on their rear ends will need trimming to help keep them clean, the area just under the tail and around the anus, not their whole back end.
Dogs frequently develop bladder and urinary infections or dog UTI with degenerative myelopathy because they may start not peeing regularly. This is very dangerous and must be treated.
If your dog is crying out in pain, it is necessary to get them help as quickly as possible because they are in an extreme amount of pain.
This unfortunately means your dog may be having pain before you know it or that they appear to be only a little uncomfortable when their pain level is really higher.
A natural, healthy pain treatment may be helpful at the first sign your pet may be in pain, and prescription pain medication may eventually be required if natural methods aren’t cutting it.
If your dog starts crying out in pain during off hours, don’t think you have to put off getting help until the vet office opens again. Call your local emergency vet, your vet’s office should give you the number if you call during off hours, and ask them if they can see the dog or advise you on a human medication to give your dog until you can get to a vet.
CBD oil is a seemingly magic supplement for a staggering number of issues, many of which may apply to your dog with degenerative myelopathy.
First, let’s discuss what CBD oil is. It is called cannabidiol, and it comes from the hemp plant. Do you know how people discuss the medical benefits of marijuana? Well, cannabidiol is part of that, in fact, it can work more effectively than marijuana because marijuana contains the “high” causing chemical THC and can make users feel drastic benefits for a short time and then suffer a crash. Cannabidiol has been shown to be more subtle, last longer, and help the body do what it already does in a better, more efficient manner.
CBD oil for dogs may help with degenerative myelopathy:
- have less inflammation
- enjoy more energy
- metabolize food better
- stress less
- gain extra nutrition
- prevent infections
Using CBD Oil
There are several CBD oil products available that may help your dog:
- Lotions are great for soothing pressure sores and other lesions, helping them heal and preventing infection in the sore.
- CBD Extract concentrates
Tinctures, concentrates, capsules, and treats are given orally. Treats are, of course, the most enjoyable method and come in crunchy or chewy kinds to suit your dog’s tastes. Tinctures and concentrates are the most versatile and cost-effective treatments, and capsules are great for dogs who take pills better than other methods of medication delivery and who don’t like the taste of hemp. Concentrates contain nothing but CBD and hemp oil and taste just like hemp. If your dog doesn’t like that, you’ll have to cover up the taste yourself by delivering the medicine in a food or beverage. Most oil tinctures are flavored, but you’ll have to make sure you buy one that is and that they enjoy the flavor.
Treats and capsules are easier for dosing control as they have set dosages on the package, based on the size of the dog. You’ll have to choose small, medium, or large for your dog’s size. There may be instructions to give one or more treats to reach a certain dose.
Oil tinctures and concentrates provide you with more variability to get the specific dose your dog needs. Tinctures come with either a dropper or sprayer to be applied directly to the dog’s mouth or food. Drops and sprays contain certain amounts for you to measure by the number of them.
Always start with a smaller dose and work up in a week or few weeks increments to reach the effective dose amount for your dog. You can ask your veterinarian for guidance to get the exact dose for your dog, though some trial and error will still be needed.
Do be aware that very small, very large, and very sick dogs will have different requirements and you’ll definitely need CBD dosing advice from a licensed vet.
Purchasing CBD oil
Not all CBD oil is equal.
Make sure you are buying CBD oil that:
- contains no THC
- is third-party tested and shows results online
- was extracted using the CO2 method
- was grown in a country with good growing regulations
You also need to know the difference between full-spectrum and CBD isolate. CBD iso is just CBD oil while full-spectrum CBD oil contains other cannabinoids, terpenes, and nutrients that come from the whole hemp plant. Full-spectrum is actually the most popular option, and it may be particularly beneficial for your dog with degenerative myelopathy because they may need additional nutrients. Should full-
spectrum not work for you, definitely try CBD isolate. Some people swear it works better for their specific case.
Innovations from Innovet
At Innovet, we make scientifically-backed CBD oil products for pets and humans to address hard-to-treat ailments. If your dog has unique needs or doesn’t respond to CBD oil, let us know so we can try to develop a new product for your dog.
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, St. Georges University
Sara Redding Ochoa, DVM was raised in north Louisiana. She graduated from LA Tech in 2011 with a degree in animal science. She then moved to Grenada West Indies for veterinary school. She completed her clinical year at Louisiana State University and graduated in 2015 from St. George’s University. Since veterinary school, she has been working at a small animal and exotic veterinary clinic in east Texas, where she has experience treating all species that walk in the hospital. In her free time, she likes to travel with her husband Greg, bake yummy desserts and spend time with her 4-legged fur kids, a dog Ruby, a cat Oliver James “OJ”, a rabbit BamBam and a tortoise MonkeyMan.
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The Innovet Team
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