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Injured players are being examined and treated, The head referee bald Crawford and the two assistant referees gathered in front of the technical table together, watching the video replay of gummies the entire conflict with the keppra and cbd oil interaction staff in front of the technical table, and negotiating to make the most fair and serious penalty. Looking keppra and cbd oil interaction at the young version of Stephen Jackson wearing a headband, Qin Fei s mind naturally came up with the Auburn Hills Palace incident that shocked the entire league in the original world. On the Western Stars side, Zen Master is also going with the flow, intending to save the big sharks to the end, so that their data can be brushed more keppra and cbd oil interaction beautifully. Although the keppra and cbd oil interaction Rockets are a strong team in the West, their overall lineup cbd side effects is aging, and their defensive strength is in the middle and lower keppra and cbd oil interaction reaches of the league.

cbd sleepy z gummies Facing Maddie s exaggerated emotions, Qin Fei was calm and said with a chuckle. Under miracle cbd gummies O Neal s public pressure, Phil Jackson, the Zen master who was under great pressure, also tended to let the Sharks open the situation in the penalty area, thus stabilizing the advantage to keppra and cbd oil interaction the end.

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What kind of magical power is this? This second keppra and cbd oil interaction jump is too scary, right. At present, the home arenas of all 29 NBA teams have been replaced with enhanced basketball stands and tempered backboards.

I m getting more and more depressed, after taking cbd gummies on airplane the vaping cbd oil effects three-year rookie contract ends, there is no hope at all to get pros and cons of cbd oil htc gummies a big contract with an annual salary of 10 million. Drexler clenched his fist and hammered the floor hard, clenching his teeth. She has not been selected for role auditions in make edible gummies several consecutive Hollywood movies, which made Jessica, who debuted as a child star, dealt a blow. Whoosh whoosh! new cbd gummies products McGrady, and the three of them keppra and cbd oil interaction promote sleep blessed cbd gummies for pain uk landed almost at the same time, flying towards the basketball.

The No, 1 pick in 1995? Rasheed Wallace also smiled and rushed over to give Xiao Ao a high five, and then sneered at Joe Smith who fell to the ground. Boom! The, ball changed, cbd gummies products holding the ball at the top of the arc, and baikal pharmacy cbd gummies review the Wolf keppra and cbd oil interaction King 8 gummies performed a pick-and-roll in a high position, bypassing the screen keppra and cbd oil interaction and facing keppra and cbd oil interaction Sean Kemp, eating directly through the speed. In short, the Eastern Conference championship belongs to us, and the Knicks keppra and cbd oil interaction are no longer a concern. What kind of monsters are his teammates? And let no one live. The wolf king jumped directly over the two top shooting guards, grabbed the ball with one hand and smashed it towards the basket. sativa cause anxiety

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How could keppra and cbd oil interaction the wise Jerry West refuse? Jerry West never thought the Lakers would get Jordan. Kobe, who walked to the center of keppra and cbd oil interaction promote sleep blessed cbd gummies for pain uk the court, looked up at the four-sided screen above his head, keppra and cbd oil interaction and was immediately stunned. Sure enough, god-level items were unusual, Duncan slapped the ball directly on Ray Allen.

The lead has come to 12 points, If it keppra and cbd oil interaction wasn t for the Timberwolves scoring champion Gugliotta s consecutive jumpers, the current point difference would have been widened even more. With the gummies boss of the Chinese Dynasty, who is roughly the same as this young and dare to fight, the NBA can keppra and cbd oil interaction definitely be popularized plant therapy cbd gummies in the Chinese Dynasty quickly, keppra and cbd oil interaction and the development of the basketball business in the Chinese keppra and cbd oil interaction Dynasty will also advance by leaps and bounds.

The emotion of contempt was swept away, replaced by surprise, keppra and cbd oil interaction even a little moved. In addition, Rasheed Wallace, Manu Ginobili, Ray Allen and Dell Curry also scored in double figures. But after this opener, I believe they will buy tickets to watch every Bulls game! After the.

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hospital s ophthalmologist handed the latest online shop gummies X-ray photo and examination report to McHale, and shook his head with a dignified expression and sighed. The Bulls best interior combination is naturally Duncan s Wolf King. Qin Fei looked up at the four screens above his head and can cbd oil make you hyper smiled. Let me see, Even if there is an extra round, it is estimated that it will still be two full points and it will be a tie. Completed benefits of cbd gummies a three-point dunk, Boom! The visual shock of the basketball shoe advertisement also amazed the fans inside and outside the stadium, and the mood to buy the MT1 generation is just around the corner. Tim Duncan on the right followed up to catch the ball, and Kemp, who landed, made a high quality gummies mg flying dunk.

McGrady, Ray Allen, and Zou rushed up to stop Duncan, rolling up their sleeves to argue with Garnett. How to tell these thc gummies teammates that he is going to leave Chicago soon. Ron Harper directly accelerated past Steve Nash with the ball in the frontcourt, and after entering the penalty area, with the help of the old Sabonis tall body, he jumped and dunked directly. Fliggy thought that Zhang Liang was in his 60s anyway, He heard that he could not live long after a heart failure. Wolf King and Duncan all excitedly slapped Maddie on the shoulder and hammered each other s chest fiercely.

Seeing that keppra and cbd oil interaction there were still three seconds left on the timer, Nash, who had dribbled the ball into the frontcourt penalty area, missed an empty basket. Damn it, you two young people don t talk about martial arts and bully me, a 35-year-old old man! As. Boom! Bulls (10): (8) Lakers, gummies to sleep continue to be in the lead. The coaches of the two teams, Qin Fei and Cowens, also shook hands and gummies 2022 hugged immediately after the game.

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Haha, If this year s All-Stars continue to participate in gummies the slam dunk contest, they will definitely be defending champions. Did he understand cbd oils it to me? Understand!! The, Lakers generals said in unison, his eyes became even colder. Just be a sparring coach in the team and do chores for the main players.

Keppra And Cbd Oil Interaction At this time, Qin Fei had already made a weight herb gummies gain and strength plan in his mind. What does it matter to lose? Playing good balls is the purpose of the All-Star game. It took less than 2 seconds to keppra and cbd oil interaction directly knock Kobe from the top of the arc to the free throw line. gummies So whenever he encounters a game with the Golden State Warriors and the Minnesota Timberwolves, Rasheed Wallace will have endless fighting spirit, and the data he has cut is not inferior to keppra and cbd oil interaction the two brother power forwards.

But no matter how strong this kid is, where can the upper limit of the NBA develop in the future. Only the last 0 minutes and 26 seconds are left on the timer. He was ready to let Stackhouse explode tonight, a brush that averaged just over 40% from the field, how could he shoot the Bulls to death. The moment to win the O Brien Cup! For the championship, go for the duck. Nash, and Duncan against the gloves, Michael and the Shark respectively, have gummies candies no advantage at all, and they gummies keppra and cbd oil interaction have to learn from Trey.

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Although you are a substitute, your playing time is absolutely Inevitably, if Tim and Bryant don t perform well in the starting lineup, I will replace them at any time and let you top them. Duncan lloyds pharmacy cbd oil for anxiety took the ball with his back on the weak side and tried to single against Karl Malone, but his strength was where to buy cbd gummies in olivehurst ca still a little worse, and his dream footsteps failed to shake off the experienced postman. After the start of the second quarter, the Pacers attempted to recover the score with the second team, but Manu Ginobili on the Bulls court quickly ushered in an explosion. In this game, Qin Fei asked Duncan to take the place of the jump ball. One of the most representative is a game between the Chicago Bulls and the Los Angeles keppra and cbd oil interaction Lakers last season. The most keppra and cbd oil interaction important thing is that the Purple and Gold Army got the God of Basketball, which will bring huge traffic and attention to the City of Angels. The high difficulty 3 1, These three three-pointers and free throws scored 10 points in a row, which also completely washed away the shame of Kobe Bryant cbd gummies with melatonin reviews s missed three key three-pointers at the end of last season.

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The top air cushion and cbd gummy cushioning technology of basketball keppra and cbd oil interaction shoes in later generations, as well as all theoretical knowledge cbd oil near me and solutions in the research and development process, have been implanted in the target person s brain. Bowen is responsive and flexible, tightly blocking Pippen s breakthrough line, and a pair of long arms constantly interfere, making Pippen s breakthrough very uncomfortable. Hathaway? Anne Hathaway? Qin Fei said a good guy, and just let him see little Jessica on TV Elba, is this little Anne Hathaway coming to live at home. Charles, I m at Steve, On his body, he seems to see the shadow of Magic Johnson. O Neal jumped up, and his slender and sturdy iron arms intercepted the line of the Wolf King s dunk. For a rookie entering the NBA for the first time, this is definitely a huge honor.

shhhhhh! Do you have this ball? Don t ask, let the keppra and cbd oil interaction basketball fly for a while! Shuh. As soon as he came up in the third quarter, he broke out quickly, easily breaking keppra and cbd oil interaction through Ron Harper s mid-range jumper. Facing Drexler s words, Kobe keppra and cbd oil interaction responded coldly: I don t Keppra And Cbd Oil Interaction want to be the second royal cbd oil Jordan, I just want to be the only Kobe. What s more, in the face of the Bulls, 3000mg cbd the players of the Jazz are still very confident in winning, and they have not studied the video of keppra and cbd oil interaction promote sleep blessed cbd gummies for pain uk the Bulls game too keppra and cbd oil interaction much. Big Ben even combined punches with Kobe, and the madman Starks was looking for teeth all over the place.

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But you forget keppra and cbd oil interaction that no matter how rich and good-looking your dribbling skills are, the purpose is to excel. Okay, I ll send you the money as soon as possible, but you have to pay to hire a few bodyguards, you must be top-level special forces, keppra and cbd oil interaction this matter can t be delayed. Hurry up and Keppra And Cbd Oil Interaction vote for Big keppra and cbd oil interaction Ben again, Too loyal! Guan Gong fought Qin Qiong, Daben fought Wu Song, they were all ruthless. In Qin Fei s opinion, every team should have one or two villains. Horrible, are these two Bulls teaming up keppra and cbd oil interaction to directly destroy the penalty area. class, On the offensive shop cbd gummy end, Duncan attracted O Neal s defense in the keppra and cbd oil interaction low post, Nash gave the ball to Garnett in the high post, and the Wolf King singled against Sean Kemp with the ball behind his back. During the Trail herbs gummies delicious Blazers, the old Thompson was the best helper around the red giant cbd gummies supplements Bill Walton, averaging 20 8 points and 11 7 rebounds per game in his peak season. Qin Fei raised his head and looked at the black keppra and cbd oil interaction boy beside him, and his eyes almost fell out of his sockets in surprise.

In the second half of the second quarter, Jaylen Brown, one of the Michigan Five Tigers, wanted to cry without tears. If Tim can t get 40 keppra and cbd oil interaction 20 tonight, I will be keppra and cbd oil interaction promote sleep blessed cbd gummies for pain uk in the new season opener. Although he has been a single-parent family since childhood, Qin Fei s father is a famous diamond king in South Africa. The entire Lakers led by Michael They are all soldiers, and they are trying their best to win the game, and keppra and cbd oil interaction they are ashamed. It is a disadvantage to defend Rashid alone, But Rasheed Wallace s mistake was that he didn t listen to Qin Fei s keppra and cbd oil interaction words. Inside, the Bucks are Robinson, the big dog, as a cameo power forward, with Almon Gillette, the second-best center in 1987.

Marcus Camby averaged 14 8 points and 6 3 rebounds per game cbd oil gummies in his rookie season and was selected to the rookie first team. In addition to the 24-game winning streak before the nimo cbd gummies All-Star, the winning streak has reached a terrifying gummies for sleep 29-game winning streak. Garnett is carrying the outside, The star dunked at the whistle? Nima. He is also the first Chinese team owner in halfday cbd oil the NBA, The news that Qin Fei, a wealthy young man in China, bought the Chicago Bulls keppra and cbd oil interaction with US$720 million has caused a sensation in Quanmi, and also caused a huge upsurge in China. He believed that Qin keppra and cbd oil interaction Fei s arrangement always had his reasons. Qin Fei glanced at the keppra and cbd oil interaction illusory information tactical board with a smile. Joe Smith was challenged by Rasheed Wallace and O Neal Jr, on the defensive end, which made him feel ashamed and angry, and was bound to save face on the offensive keppra and cbd oil interaction end. Sign first and then keppra and cbd oil interaction change? He thought that Qin Fei was in keppra and cbd oil interaction the Arabian Nights, but he couldn t refute it. The local sports newspapers in Los Angeles also named Michael, Sharks, Sean Pamp and Jason Kidd as the four kings of the cbd gummies Lakers. But this second contract made Jordan s mood turn 360 degrees in an instant.

The best ball! Maybe, the game has just started for less than 2 minutes, and the good show may be yet to come. At this time, Tom Thibodeau suddenly keppra and cbd oil interaction promote sleep blessed cbd gummies for pain uk called Ray Allen out of the how many 750 mg cbd gummies should i eat locker room by himself, and then handed one of the bracers in his hand to Ray Allen. The last finale was naturally keppra and cbd oil interaction the god of basketball, Michael.

Last season s Bruce Bowen keppra and cbd oil interaction signed Keppra And Cbd Oil Interaction a contract with the NBA s Miami extract labs cbd gummy Heat, but was mercilessly cut after just one game.

No, more than Michael, because tonight s Tracy was completely blown away. City because of your accents, Why did you come to keppra and cbd oil interaction Las Vegas suddenly.

I m used to working with McGrady, but I can t imagine that the talent gap between Bruce and McGrady is too great. This young man from the Celestial Dynasty seems to be really not simple. Within a minute, Jess Claus knocked on the door and walked in: Boss, are you looking for me. But the All-Star Game was originally a performance game, In the fierce competition, it is still exciting, playing the best basketball, showing these The unparalleled talent of the talented players. I can make it into the All-Star Game! Zhang Zhizhi keppra and cbd oil interaction was inexplicably excited when he thought that fans in China could finally vote for the NBA s own stars. The white players were completely covered on one side by the tall and cbd gummies for anxiety long Duncan, keppra and cbd oil interaction and they had to admire Duncan s defensive strength in their hearts. The Peak Tracy McGrady Enhanced Fusion Card keppra and cbd oil interaction is an exclusive fusion card that perfectly fits Tracy McGrady.

The fans at home cheered and cheered, and they all keppra and cbd oil interaction jumped up from their seats excitedly, shouting the name of the justcbd cbd gummies basketball god. I admit that I have gambling Keppra And Cbd Oil Interaction elements, but I Right bet! Finally, I would like to thank Alan Houston, if it weren t for his slip assist, I would never have created the miracle of 35 seconds and 13 minutes.

The phone rang keppra and cbd oil interaction suddenly, and after Old Meyer answered, there was a roar from an unfilial son. Facing the questions swarmed by reporters, the young Kobe Bryant had a bright smile on his face.

At the same time, the surface of the ring is also inlaid with herbal cbd oils the name and jersey number of each winner. Crack! Qin Fei couldn t help but sighed in his heart how powerful the god-level bracers were. I am already looking forward to keppra and cbd oil interaction the team s new season opener. Moreover, since the beginning of the keppra and cbd oil interaction new season, the average points per game have also ranked first in the league, and it weed gummies is impossible to fight alone on the outside.

Shuh! Finally, Bulls (3): (3) Knicks, new cbd gummies Qin Fei, who was standing on the sidelines, also waved gummy edibles full spectrum cbd gummies his fists excitedly and shouted that Maddie was good. kilograms 90, Strength: cbd gummies 2022 85, Back Play: 80, Layup: 90, Near Shot: 90, Mid Shot: 92, Three-point Shot: 90, Dunks: 92. The ball on the top of the arc keppra and cbd oil interaction saw that he did not come up to double-team this time, giving him a chance to single against McGrady. keppra and cbd oil interaction promote sleep blessed cbd gummies for pain uk If you can flavorful cbd gummies complete a dunk on my head, I will give you $500,000. He wants to go by himself, I can t be bothered to keep him. Sean Kemp joined the Lakers, making millions of fans across the United States talking about how terrifying the Lakers will be in the new season. Whoosh! However, he reacted at the first moment, turned over and accelerated and chased again.

The Bucks attacked, and Pippen finally took offense, hitting a 45-degree three-pointer against Bruce Bowen s fierce defense. It s gummies alright now, Rasheed Wallace thought that after his injury, let alone playing the main force, I am afraid that the possibility of being traded out is very high.

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stop smoking cbd gummies canada Losing is the next best thing, If it is really useless, it will be the biggest failure keppra and cbd oil interaction online store of his boss keppra and cbd oil interaction Qin Fei and his coaching career. After all, the overall strength of the Knicks team is far keppra and cbd oil interaction promote sleep blessed cbd gummies for pain uk above this brand-new Bull. On the Chicago Bulls side, Ben Wallace, Rasheed Wallace, Jermaine O Neal, Kobe Bryant, and Bruce Bowen were ejected, and gold cbd gummies the suspension and fines were added later. Painful and wailing, Luke Langley was sweating profusely, and was quickly carried off the court by an extended stretcher and four medical staff, and returned to the locker room for further treatment. .

Keppra And CBD Oil Interaction

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions occur with multiple ASMs.

Pharmacokinetic interactions are frequently attributed to CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.

Known interactions may not alter the ASM level outside the therapeutic range.

There is limited evidence currently for many ASMs.

There is limited evidence for the clinical relevance of many interactions.



Cannabidiol is efficacious as an adjunctive treatment in children with epilepsy associated with Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. As its role is currently adjunctive, we reviewed the interactions of cannabidiol with other antiseizure medications (ASMs).


A search of Cochrane, Pubmed and Embase databases from January 2015 to April 2020 was performed. All original research papers discussing interactions between cannabidiol and ASMs were included. Bibliographies of review articles were searched to identify further papers. Adverse events and side effects were excluded.


Cannabidiol interacts with ASMs through both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. Thirty studies were identified (eighteen observational cohort studies, two randomised-control trials, three case reports/series, three animal studies, two briefing reports, an analysis of cohort data and a clinical trial simulation). There is potential for pharmacokinetic interactions between CBD and brivaracetam, clobazam, eslicarbazepine, lacosamide, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, potassium bromide, pregabalin, rufinamide, sirolimus/everolimus, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate and zonisamide. Pharmacodynamic interactions were identified for clobazam, valproate and levetiracetam. An animal study identified that the brain concentration of ASMs may be altered while the serum concentration remains the same.


Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions exist between cannabidiol and ASMs. The cytochrome p450 system in particular has been implicated in pharmacokinetic interactions, although not exclusively. The existing literature is limited for some ASMs by studies having relatively small cohorts. As increasing numbers of patients use cannabidiol, specialists need to monitor closely for interactions clinically and with blood levels when required.

“We’ve tried it all”

AN EMPTY FEELING. With saliva leaking from his mouth, Preston experiences an absent seizure, which looks and feels like it sounds: He stops interacting and stares into nothing.

Inside Children’s Hospital Colorado, Ana Watson stares across the small exam room at the woman in a white lab coat quizzing her. Banzel? “Tried it,” Ana says. Keppra? “Is that the one that causes the rash?” Ana asks. “Keppra often causes behavioral issues,” the doctor responds. “Yes, that’s what we got with that,” Ana says. The doctor continues down the list of anti-epilepsy medications, collecting the medical history of Ana’s 12-year-old son, Preston, whose seizures cause such unrelenting brain damage that he functions at the level of a 2-year-old. The doctor ticks through 13 medicines, but Preston already has tried each one, to little effect.

That’s why Ana moved her family across the country to Colorado, where Preston could try a treatment that’s not on the doctor’s list. Three days before the doctor’s appointment in mid-July, Ana gave Preston his first dose of an unregulated medical marijuana extract that is high in a compound called CBD. Hundreds of families like Ana’s have moved to Colorado for the treatment, hoping it will calm their children’s seizures.

A desperate hope and well-publicized stories about kids who have responded to the drug drive the families here, despite scant research on CBD’s overall efficacy. Scientists know so little about the treatment that it’s not even clear what CBD might do in the brain to impact seizures.

So, the entire day after that first dose, Ana watched Preston like a poker player looking for a tell.

Preston yawned. Did that mean the marijuana made him sleepy? Preston ate. Did the extract make him hungry? Preston didn’t seem to seize as often.

Then the next day, Preston suffered a grand mal seizure that left him writhing violently. He had another one the day after that. Getting him to eat or drink had become nearly impossible, and that meant he wasn’t getting consistent doses of either the CBD treatment or his traditional medications, both of which Ana tried to hide in Preston’s food or sweet tea.

So now Ana is sitting in the hospital whose doctors have been the most outspoken in Colorado in urging parents not to use marijuana to control seizures — it’s too risky, they say; there are too many unknowns — and she is hoping for advice on what to do.

Ketogenic diet, the doctor asks?

“Basically, we’ve tried it all,” Ana says. “That’s why we moved here for CBD. His doctors said we can’t go up in his meds anymore, and we were at a stopping point.”

The doctor looks at her list. She looks sympathetically at Ana.

“Have you tried Stiripentol?”

“Yes,” Ana sighs, “we’ve tried everything.”

No recommendations

The CBD rush to Colorado is a movement that divides patients from doctors.

Even as families flock to the state, few doctors here condone the use of marijuana to treat seizures. And that means the very people on whom families depend for medical advice are often silent when it comes to critical questions about the new treatment.

The state health department, which manages the patient registry that all children using medical marijuana must join, offers almost no guidance.

“What I always tell people is you have to be really careful,” said Dr. Larry Wolk, the executive director of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. “They have to know that it’s outside of the regulatory process, outside of the (Food and Drug Administration), and it’s very much ‘Buyer beware.’ “

Many of the families arriving in the state for medical marijuana — as well as those already living here — seek out the care of specialists at Children’s Hospital Colorado. About 100 kids who see doctors at the hospital have tried a CBD treatment.

But no doctor at Children’s recommends using cannabis or gives more than cautious advice about it.

“We don’t make recommendations about the marijuana therapy because we don’t have the information to do that,” said Dr. Amy Brooks-Kayal, the head of pediatric neurology at Children’s. “We feel very strongly that we need to act on good medical and scientific evidence, and that doesn’t exist.”

A national survey of doctors by the American Epilepsy Society found that while 94 percent said they have been asked by a patient about using cannabis to control seizures, fewer than a third would actually recommend that patients try it. Another 13 percent said they would support its use but would rather have another doctor provide the recommendation needed to obtain it.

“For the doctor to know what they need to know about an illegal drug is a very high expectation,” said Dr. Jacqueline French, an epilepsy specialist at New York University’s Langone Medical Center. She said CBD is “driving the conversation” many doctors now have with their patients.

The result of that one-sided conversation, though, is that parents who give CBD to their children must turn to one another and their medical marijuana providers for help. Facebook has become a crowd-sourced doctor’s office. Colorado’s sometimes ragtag community of medical marijuana growers acts as a de facto human services agency.

By not engaging more with providers, doctors often lack an understanding of the types of marijuana products their patients are using and are unaware of the sometimes contradictory advice their patients receive.

For instance, CBD providers commonly tell newly arrived parents that they should reduce the level of an anti-seizure drug called Onfi before starting CBD because the two could have a dangerous interaction. Parents often reduce the medicine without consulting their doctors. Doctors at Children’s, though, say they haven’t seen conclusive evidence that CBD has an impact on Onfi levels. Meager research makes it impossible to know who is right.

Some physicians are now stepping forward to work with providers on clinical trials for CBD, and doctors at Children’s have begun recording more specific details of the CBD products their patients are using — who is providing the medical marijuana and how much the child is taking, for instance. But the broader dynamic still hinders the study of CBD’s effectiveness. And that only increases the uncertainty that hangs over families such as Ana’s in their Colorado exile.

Leaving Children’s after the first visit, Ana still has questions about CBD. But doctors there have set up several new appointments to address other aspects of Preston’s care. He soon will have a feeding tube inserted into his stomach, allowing Ana to give him food and medicine consistently. She’ll take him to get fitted for a new helmet to protect him in falls.

A plan is taking shape.

“I thought it went really well,” she says.

Parents hope to see progress

Two days later, they’re back again. A blue line squiggles furiously up and down on a computer screen.

Preston is talking.

“Silly mommy,” he says to Ana, as she snuggles into a single hospital bed with him.

“Silly Preston,” she says back.

He leans in to give her a kiss on the cheek. A maroon line on the computer screen jumps to life.

A bundle of 21 multicolored electrical wires poke from the top of a wrapping on Preston’s head, running off the bed and to the computer. Every gesture, every word, every eye blink shows up as activity on the screen, where blue, maroon and green lines measure Preston’s brain activity. It is one answer to the question that has vexed Ana for the past 12 years: What is happening inside her son’s head?

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But, even now, the seizures from a rare form of epilepsy known as Dravet syndrome remain a mystery. Some little eye-flutter seizures cause leaping spikes on the screen. Some seem to skip by without a change in the pattern. So chaotic is Preston’s brain that, looking later at the electroencephalogram, or EEG, doctors will have a hard time telling from the readings when he was awake and when he was asleep, when he was seizing and when he was still.

At the end of their first visit, Dr. Kelly Knupp, Preston’s new neurologist at Children’s, suggested the EEG so that the hospital could have some starting record of Preston’s brain activity. The timing worked; Preston was already in the hospital, after the feeding tube surgery the day before.

But, to get a true starting level, the EEG meant Ana would need to take Preston off CBD temporarily. She had spent seven months planning how to get to Colorado for the treatment. She was pausing it after five days.

“The point of this is to get a baseline,” Knupp had told Ana, “so that after you’re on CBD, you can have a baseline to look at.”

While doctors at Children’s don’t exactly want their patients on CBD, they are eager to find out what it’s doing. Knupp told Ana that doctors at the hospital now recommend all patients have both an EEG and a bloodwork exam prior to starting CBD. They would like to run follow-up tests every three or four months.

The results from the first batch of CBD kids tested made their way into a study that Knupp and two other doctors will present this week at the American Epilepsy Society conference in Seattle. Of the 58 children tested, 31 percent saw their seizures reduce by half, the study found. About 50 percent of the patients saw at least some seizure reduction.

But the results were ultimately even less conclusive.

The doctors relied on parents to report how much CBD reduced seizures. And that opened the door for the study’s two most intriguing findings.

The hospital didn’t see any improvement in the before-and-after EEGs of four kids whose seizures appeared to lessen significantly. That may have been due to something called “electroclinical dissociation,” where the seizure still occurs but its outward indicators disappear. It also might be that parents can pick up on smaller improvements than an EEG can, said Dr. Kevin Chapman, a pediatric neurologist at Children’s who was a co-author on the study.

But the study also calls into question parents’ ability to be objective. The doctors found that parents who had moved to Colorado for medical marijuana were much more likely to report that it had helped their children significantly than those who were already living in Colorado — 52 percent compared with 17 percent. In other words, the greater the leap of hope it took to try CBD, the more likely a parent was to see progress.

“We worry about all the stresses that families had to go through to start the treatment,” Chapman said. “That desire for it to be effective may cloud their recognition of seizures.”

Supporters of the CBD treatment say Children’s sample was skewed because the hospital might not be seeing the kids doing best on medical marijuana. State health officials have recommended that Children’s receive nearly $1 million in grants for further research.

Even if the treatment is successful, though, no one knows what will happen if kids who have seized their whole lives suddenly stop. Do they develop normally? Or does their underlying condition continue to inhibit their growth?

Including the new Children’s study, the nine studies or surveys looking at whether CBD controls seizures in humans form a scientific crazy quilt.

They look at different forms of epilepsy, different kinds of seizures and different measurements of success. At least five types of CBD-rich marijuana therapies are represented in the studies.

The results swing wildly: The studies show 30 percent to 80 percent of children seeing a significant seizure reduction while on CBD. And now even some doctors involved in the research question the findings.

Dr. Edward Maa, an epilepsy specialist at Denver Health Medical Center, worked with the most famous CBD provider in Colorado, the Realm of Caring, and a Colorado Springs medical marijuana doctor on a patient survey — one of the earliest studies on the efficacy of CBD in the state. The study found that nine of the 11 families surveyed saw at least a 75 percent reduction in seizures. It was an overwhelming success rate.

But now Maa wonders whether families who tried CBD with little success quit using the treatment before they could be included in the study. The Realm of Caring says only one patient had stopped using CBD at the time the survey was conducted. Maa is working on a genetic study trying to determine why some kids respond to CBD and some don’t.

“The vast majority of people, if they were going to respond, had a dramatic reduction of seizures,” Maa said. “That doesn’t represent the larger, global number of people who had exposure to it. We don’t know those true numbers yet.”

“Uncontrolled experiment”

A faint smell of cow manure wafts in the breeze as Ana pulls her minivan up to a house in eastern Boulder County.

In the five weeks since Preston left the hospital, Ana has restarted him on CBD — now shooting it efficiently into his feeding tube. Preston went the first two weeks without suffering a grand mal, but his blinky seizures remained.

“But they don’t seem to me to be as long,” Ana said.

The CBD oil she was using then was a roughly 35:1 mixture of CBD to THC. But Ana, concerned that she wasn’t using the best formulation, sought out the opinion of a Denver doctor who specializes in making medical marijuana recommendations. The doctor, Alan Shackelford, suggested Ana try a mix with more THC.

“In a way,” he told Ana, “it’s an uncontrolled experiment. Which I don’t necessarily like. But we are pressed into this circumstance.”

So Ana visited her CBD provider, who gave her oil at a 10:1 ratio of CBD to THC, and the next day she watched as her son ate better than he had in months: a plate of fried okra, a plate of potato chips smothered in barbecue sauce, a stick of string cheese, a Frosty and, most surprising of all, tuna salad with crackers.

Preston’s grandmother, Milly, thought he had the munchies.

“But you have to be careful that you’re not making things in your brain,” she said. “We’re all watching him and his behavior.”

While Preston played later in the backyard August sunshine, his eyes seemed to roar.

The toy was a Slip ‘N Slide, on which he and his sister, Sydney, were supposed to be shooting across the tarp and under an inflatable shark’s mouth that held a spraying hose. Instead, Preston grabbed the hose and became the shark.

His hunting spared no one. He drenched Milly. Sydney escaped back inside, water dripping down her hair. And Preston laughed with such big gulps of air that it sounded as if his own joy might strangle him. Until, suddenly, his laughter stopped.

Preston’s legs folded under him, and he crashed hard to the ground. Milly burst from her chair and ran over to him, reaching him in time to see his eyes roll toward his brows. And then, lying there in the grass he had soaked, Preston began to shake violently.

“It’s OK,” Milly whispered into his ear, trying to talk him out of the seizure. “It’s OK.”

Milly gathered Preston and sat him on her lap in a chair. He breathed heavily, wheezing in and huffing out. His eyes were shut.

“It’s OK,” Milly whispered again. “It’s OK.”

The shaking calmed.

“We pushed that too far, didn’t we?”

Preston’s breaths grew quieter.

“You were being a big, mean shark. It’s OK.”

His muscles relaxed.

“It was fun, though, wasn’t it, Preston?”

A roller coaster

The seizure — the second grand mal in a week — flustered Ana. And that’s why she finds herself back at the house in eastern Boulder County. Jason Cranford meets her on the porch.

Although he owns a medical marijuana store and several licensed cultivation warehouses, Cranford provides CBD to young patients out of his home under the state’s less-stringent regulations for medical marijuana caregivers. He says it keeps the cost down for patients and creates a more personal atmosphere.

After he harvests his marijuana plants, he hangs them over the arms of a weight bench in his front room, ready to be trimmed. He extracts the oil in a lab he assembled in his garage. When families arrive, his German shepherd is there to greet them.

Soon, Jason hands Ana new bottles of cannabis oil. This time, he’s giving her one bottle of high-CBD oil and another bottle containing high-THC.

Now she can make any ratio she wants, Jason says. It’s the third formulation change since Preston started the oil six weeks ago.

She asks about the amount she’s giving. “Should I up it?”

“Are you seeing any results?” Jason asks.

Ana’s reply is quiet.

“Then you need to up it,” Jason says.

In the next week, blinky seizures will overwhelm Preston each afternoon. A week after that, Ana will write on Facebook, “Preston started a new ratio oil yesterday higher THC, today only being on it for the second day we saw 70-80 percent seizure reduction. BAM. Bite that seizures. ” And then a week after that, Preston will have three grand mals in a day. A roller coaster, Ana will call it.

But for now, she walks back to her minivan and returns home to try again.

She’s learning that when it comes to Preston’s treatment, traditional medicine and marijuana have at least this much in common: There are still far more questions than answers.

John Ingold: 303-954-1068, [email protected] or

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