CBD is readily obtainable in most parts of the United States, though its exact legal status has been in flux. All 50 states have laws legalizing CBD with varying degrees of restriction. In December 2015, the FDA eased the regulatory requirements to allow researchers to conduct CBD trials. In 2018, the Farm Bill made hemp legal in the United States, making it virtually impossible to keep CBD illegal – that would be like making oranges legal, but keeping orange juice illegal.
How is cannabidiol different from marijuana, cannabis and hemp?
Some CBD manufacturers have come under government scrutiny for wild, indefensible claims, such that CBD is a cure-all for cancer or COVID-19, which it is not. We need more research but CBD may prove to be a helpful, relatively non-toxic option for managing anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain. Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies, we can’t pinpoint effective doses, and because CBD currently is typically available as an unregulated supplement, it’s hard to know exactly what you are getting.
How can CBD be taken?
The Farm Bill removed all hemp-derived products, including CBD, from the Controlled Substances Act, which criminalizes the possession of drugs. In essence, this means that CBD is legal if it comes from hemp, but not if it comes from cannabis (marijuana) – even though it is the exact same molecule. Currently, many people obtain CBD online without a medical marijuana license, which is legal in most states.
Method: In this naturalistic observational study, 120 cannabis and alcohol-using adults (mean age = 33.2 years, 39.2% female, 83.3% white) were assigned to use one of three legal-market cannabis strains (predominantly THC, predominantly CBD, and CBD + THC) ad libitum for 5 days. Timeline Followback data on drinking and cannabis use were collected at a baseline session pertaining to the 30 days prior to the ad libitum period, and data regarding alcohol and cannabis use during the 5-day period were collected at follow-up (FU), immediately following the 5-day period.
Results: Regression models tested strain differences in drinking outcomes during the ad libitum period. Orthogonal contrast codes were created comparing the CBD group with the other two groups and comparing the THC group with the CBD + THC group. The CBD group drank fewer drinks per drinking day (p < .05), had fewer alcohol use days (p < .05), and fewer alcohol and cannabis co-use days (p < .05) compared with the other groups. No differences emerged between the THC and the CBD + THC group.
Objective: Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of cannabis on alcohol consumption, with some studies suggesting that cannabis is a substitute for alcohol, whereas others suggest that cannabis complements alcohol, thereby increasing drinking. Cannabidiol (CBD) has shown preclinical promise in decreasing alcohol consumption. This study explores the effects of cannabis containing different potencies of CBD and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on alcohol consumption.
Conclusions: Cannabinoid content should be considered in studies of alcohol and cannabis co-use. Findings are consistent with preclinical work, suggesting that CBD may be associated with decreased alcohol consumption. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
CBD can also be taken orally as a tincture, oil, capsule, or spray. Edible CBD products are also popular and include gummies, candies, and beverages.
Like THC, CBD can also be consumed in a number of different forms. CBD oils can be formulated for vaping, although there have been recent concerns about the health dangers posed by vaping.
Cannabidiol, usually referred to as CBD, is the second most prevalent chemical compound found in cannabis. First discovered during the 1940s, CBD has recently become more popular as a natural treatment for a range of conditions. It can be derived from hemp or from marijuana. Hemp-derived CBD still contains trace amounts of THC, while marijuana-derived CBD may contain more.
How to Take THC and CBD
THC and CBD have an effect on the endocannabinoid system, a system that plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis. Researchers are still working to understand the ins and outs of this complex system, but they do know that it is associated with processes including memory, appetite, sleep, mood, and fertility.
THC and CBD may also have an effect on some health conditions and can interact with certain medications, so you should always use caution before taking these products. These substances might impact how medications are metabolized by your body. They can also heighten feelings of anxiety in some cases.
When choosing CBD products, it is also important to consider its formulation. Isolate products contain only CBD. Broad-spectrum products contain other cannabinoids with the exception of THC, while full-spectrum CBD products contain CBD, THC, and other cannabinoids.
Some evidence suggests that the combined effects of CBD and THC may be dependent on dose. A 2019 study, for example, found that low doses of CBD actually played a role in amplifying the psychoactive effects of THC, while high doses of CBD reduced THC’s effects.
THC, on the other hand, does have psychoactive effects. It is the compound that produces the high that people associate with marijuana.